THE BEGINNING OF THE ASSEMBLIES OF GOD OF INDONESIA (1936-1951)

By Gani Wiyono


This chapter will explore the beginning of the Assemblies of God in Indonesia which began in the second half of the 1930’s with the work of Kenneth G. Short, Ralph M. Devin, and Raymond Arthur Busby and ended with the birth of the Assemblies of God in Indonesia, which was the legal successor of the former Indische Bethel Zending, in January 1951.


 

The Precursors of the Assemblies of God of Indonesia

The Assemblies of God actually had no active presence in Indonesia until 1946 when Kenneth George Short, Raymond Arthur Busby and Ralph Mitchell Devin returned to Indonesia as missionaries sent by the Division of Foreign Mission of the American General Council of the Assemblies of God. Before World War II, these men came to Indonesia as independent, self-supporting missionaries, although for some time they worked under the auspices of Bethel Temple Mission.[1] The following is a historical sketch of their pioneering work in Indonesia, which was formerly known as the Dutch East Indies.

 

Kenneth and Gladys Short [2]

In 1931 Kenneth Short enrolled in the Southern California Bible School in Pasadena. He felt that God called him to be a missionary to Borneo. Unfortunately, he found that the Assemblies of God had no work there so he contacted the Christian Missionary Alliance that had been there for several years. He received no help from them, either.

In his second year of school, Kenneth met Gladys Orr, a first year student who felt a call to Borneo too. They immediately became close friends. Through Gladys, Kenneth got in touch with young people from Bethel Temple, Seattle, including some who were home from Indonesia on furlough.

After graduation, Kenneth asked Gladys to marry him, but since Gladys had two more years of school, he had to wait patiently.[3] When Gladys graduated, Kenneth went back to school to pick up his bride. Gladys, however strongly felt that she should not go to Borneo right then, but go first to the Kentucky Mountains to assist a lady who needed help in her pastorate. Kenneth was heartbroken.

Through correspondence with Bethel Temple friends, Kenneth found that there was a group of people returning to Indonesia and they gave him a chance to go to Indonesia. In January 1936, Kenneth went to Japan and met them and then they sailed together from Japan to Surabaya.

From Surabaya, Kenneth crossed over the Java Sea and arrived safely in Banjarmasin, South Borneo in June 1936.[4] He stayed and ministered a few months in that city, before traveling on a boat which was named Setiawan or “the faithful one” to Borneo interior.[5]

After traveling for some time in the Borneo interior, Kenneth felt that God led him to stay and minister to the village people in Pulangpisau, on the bank of Kahayan river. For several months, he witnessed to nearly every one in the village but none was converted. Harvest time finally came when a little blind girl was healed under his ministry. Saridjan, the little girl’s brother and the whole family decided to follow Christ, and were baptized by Kenneth in the muddy water of Kahayan river. Later, other villagers followed Saridjan’s footsteps.[6]

Two years later, Gladys Orr came to the Dutch East Indies. On October 1938, she married Kenneth in Surabaya, East Java. After their marriage, Kenneth and Gladys returned to Pulangpisau. Gladys’ arrival brought a new dimension and women joined the services. Prior to this, only men came to the services in Kenneth’s house, because the local custom did not allow women to visit a single man. Gladys taught the women about the Bible and how to sew. While doing these things, Gladys worked hard to master the language.

On November 23, 1939, David Short was born in Kuala Kapuas. Shortly after that joyful day, the World War II erupted. At first, the Shorts thought they could just hide in the jungle and let the world fight. Unfortunately, they suffered from malaria which compelled them to leave Borneo and visit the doctor in Surabaya.

While the Shorts were in Surabaya, they had a chance to visit the American Consulate office. During the conversation with the consulate officer, the Shorts were advised to leave Indonesia for security reasons. They sailed to Japan on a small Dutch freighter, and from there, they returned to the United States in 1940. Before leaving Indonesia, however, Kenneth went back to Pulangpisau and handed over the pastoral leadership to the fine young converts there.

After staying in America for about one year, the Shorts decided to go back to Borneo. They then arranged to sail on a ship at the end of December 1941. Unfortunately, before this plan came to fruition, the Pacific War erupted. The ship didn’t sail and the Shorts had no choice but to stay in America until the end of the War

 

Ralph Mitchell and Edna Lucy Devin

Edna Devin felt a call to the mission field when she was the mother of five children, and her husband, Ralph Mitchell Devin was unsaved. In a very personal experience, God promised to save Edna’s whole family and send them together to the islands of the sea.[7] God’s promise came to pass when Ralph Mitchell and Edna Devin decided to leave their prosperous furniture business[8] in the hands of others and go to Indonesia (then known as the Dutch East Indies) in 1938. About four years before that decision was made, Ralph Mitchell Devin accepted Christ under the ministry of C.M. Ward who was a guest speaker at the Bethel Temple Seattle.[9]

Knowing that the Christian and Missionary Alliance had a presence in Indonesia, the Devins applied to work with them, but a missionary board told them they were too old, had too many children, and could never master the language.[10] Undaunted, Ralph and Edna Devin, together with their five children sailed for Indonesia as self-supporting missionaries.

In March 1938, the Devins arrived in Makassar. Shortly before landing in the harbor something unusual happened to Edna Devin. She was instantly healed from a malignant skin disease, which had troubled her before leaving America.[11]

In Makassar, the Devins stayed in the home of Robert A. Jaffray.[12] Several days later, they continued their journey to the Mollucas with a brother from Seattle, Floyd C. Brown. Floyd was such a godsend for the Devins. In the early days of their ministry in the Mollucas (when they had not mastered the spoken language), Floyd became their faithful interpreter for about six months before returning to the U.S.

Shortly after arriving in the Mollucas, the Devins established a headquarters in Ambon. At first, they worked together with Job Silloy, a pastor of De Pinkseterk in Netherlands Indies. This cooperation however ceased after six months as the Devins felt uneasy with the practices and doctrinal positions of De Pinksterk in Netherlands Indies, such as:

  • Using alcoholic wine in the celebration of the Lord Supper
  • Baptizing people with the formula of “Jesus Only” teaching.
  • Forbidding women to preach.[13]

After this separation, Ralph M Devin established Indische Bethel Zending (Bethel Indies Mission) in September 1938. Two years later, on April 24, 1940, that organization received official government recognition.[14] The first officers of this organization were:

Chairman: Ralph Mitchell Devin

Assistant to Chairman: Raymond Arthur Busby

Secretary: Wijma

Ralph Devin used his home in Kampung Mardika, Ambon not only as the headquarters of Indische Bethel Zending but also for a house church. Their neighbors, who were predominantly Muslims welcomed and befriended them. The leaders of the Protestant Church in Mollucas, however, were not happy with the Devins’ presence,[15]because they believed that Ralph and Edna Devin propagated deviant teachings.

After moving from one place to another,[16] Indische Bethel Zending finally was able to build a simple church building in Soos Laan, Ambon. The walls were constructed with pieces of wood and the roofs were made from Sagoe leaves.[17]

In 1939, Ralph Devin organized a revival meeting in Ambon. John Sung was invited to be the only speaker. Sung’s impressive preaching style and gift of healings drew hundreds of people to attend and many gave their lives to Jesus. Among others were the Butje Berhitu Family, the Mataheru Family, and the Tan Family who later became the earliest members of the Devin’s pastorate.[18]

Besides pastoring a congregation in Ambon, the Devins also visited and preached the Gospel on other islands such as Saparua, Seram, Tujuh, and Bacan. Their activities, however, had to stop due to the outbreak of the Pacific War. They were forced to flee to Australia in January 1942 to avoid the invading Japanese army.. Before leaving Ambon, Ralph M. Devin however handed down the leadership of Indische Bethel Zending to The Tjoan Tjoe.[19]

 

Raymond and Beryl Busby

Raymond Busby was born and grew up in a home where the family altar was practiced diligently, morning and evening. Nevertheless, he did not have a born-again experience until he was 19 years old. Soon after Busby’s conversion, he married Beryl Hooker.[20]

Both Raymond and Beryl felt a missionary call to Indonesia. Beryl, when she was nine years old, had a vision in which she saw a woman wearing an unfamiliar costume. Years later when they arrived in Tanah Karo, North Sumatra, Beryl saw the same women whom she had seen in her vision.[21]

The Busbys, however, kept postponing their departure to Indonesia because of their son, Buddy Ray. They did not want him to suffer from tropical diseases, and decided they would wait until he finished school. Unexpectedly, at the age of nine years old, Buddy died, but this sad experience brought the Busbys back to the missionary call.[22] Less than one-year later, Raymond left their job at the post office in Seattle, and together with Beryl, sailed to the Dutch East Indies as a self-supporting missionary.

In 1939 the Busbys arrived in Medan (now the capital province of North Sumatra). Because of their close relationship with the Bethel Temple Mission which had been in the Dutch East Indies since 1921, they worked under the umbrella of that mission organization. This union did not last longer as the Busbys decided to join the Indische Bethel Zending.   Later, as previously mentioned, Busby became the second most important person in that organization.

Unlike the Shorts’ and the Devins’, the Busbys’ activities before the outbreak of World War II were hardly known, except that they worked and planted churches in the North Sumatra. [23]   On a few occasions, the Busbys also visited and ministered in a Pentecostal Church (Pinkster Gemeente) on Jl. Pecenongan 54 Jakarta where Richard van Klavern, Raymond’s close friend from Bethel Temple, Seattle was pastoring.

 

Returning to Indonesia

It was during the war years that both Ralph M. Devin and Raymond A. Busby joined the Northwest District Council of the American Assemblies of God. They were then asked to minister in the Seattle area. Ralph Devin pastored the White Center Assembly of God while Raymond Busby, led West Assembly of God and taught at the Northwest Bible Institute. Kenneth Short, already held credentials with the Assemblies of God and he pastored a small Assemblies of God church in Buckley, Washington. His pastoral ministry however did not last too long because the headquarters of the Assemblies of God in Springfield, Missouri asked him to be involved with publishing the missionary magazine.

On August 14, 1945 the Japanese military Forces surrendered to the Allied Forces. Three days later, on August 17, 1945, Soekarno and Hatta, declared Independence for Indonesia. However, the Dutch Government did not want to lose their former beautiful and rich colony, so, for almost five years (1945-1950) a war raged between the Dutch military forces and the Indonesian militias. During these years of turmoil, the three pioneers, Kenneth Short, Ralph Devin, and Raymond Busby, together with their beloved families returned to Indonesia as missionaries officially sent by the Division of Foreign Mission of U.S. Assemblies of God.

 

Before the First General Council (1946-1951)

From 1946 to 1951, Indische Bethel Zending was the official name for the organization. In the first General Council in Jakarta (January 1-5, 1951) all the participants agreed to change the name, from Indische Bethel Zending to the Assemblies of God in Indonesia. What happened in the body of Indische Bethel Zending during 1946-1951 will be briefly narrated in the following sub-section.

 

In the Mollucas

On April 19, 1946, the Devins returned to a devastated Ambon. Their old mission sites were found in ruins and some of their beloved converts were gone forever. Those who remained alive however brought such joy to the Devins when they were found holding meetings with a few Australian boys.[24]

 

The Church at Kate-kate

Ralph finally was able to secure a plantation with a large building across the bay at a place named Kate-kate. This property was bought from Van Aart, a resident of Ambon.[25] After doing necessary renovations, the Devins used the building simultaneously as their home and a church.

At the outset, the church at Kate-kate was facing many difficulties. Her dynamic and expressive character troubled the members of the traditional church. As a result, they not only mocked the Kate-kate members but also threw stones while the services were running and other times they beat those who attended. Following the early church in Jerusalem’s example, Kate-kate church accepted this persecution with a grateful, prayerful, and joyful heart. They believed it would make the church grow significantly, and indeed the church grew. Among others who became the early members of Kate-kate Congregation were the Mataheru, the Thenu, the Gasperz, the Tupamahu, the Taihutu, and the Sopemena Families.

 

The Church at Soos Land

Six miles across the bay by boat from Kate-kate; twelve miles around the island by car, there was another Indische Bethel Zending church in Soos Laan which Ralph Mitchel Devin pioneered and pastored before the war. When he left, the leadership was turned over to The Tjoan Tjoe, a Chinese-Indonesian pastor.

After the War, The Tjoan Tjoe returned the leadership of both Soos Laan and Indische Bethel Zending to Ralph M. Devin, and then moved to Makassar where he worked with Mrs. Overbeek to plant Assemblies of God churches in South Sulawesi.

Hundreds attended the Soos Laan service weekly, hearing the Gospel for the first time. Edna Devin, in an article published by the Missionary Challenge, gave a glimpse of what was happening in Ambon and accounted for the large attendance in the Soos Laan church.

The government brings workers from other islands in shifts of 500 men. The men stay six months then go home and 500 more come. There are usually two or three such shifts on our island at a time. Also, native soldiers newly taken for training and about 500 Dutch boys from Holland are stationed here. We testify, preach, give out literature and visit them.[26]

 

Preaching the Gospel in other islands

Before the War, the Devins preached the Gospel in some islands nearby Ambon. However, due to the outbreak of the Pacific War, they had to move out of the archipelago before building churches there. When returning to Ambon in 1946, they continued their previous efforts to build churches in the Mollucan archipelago. This time they did not work alone. Roswell B. and Avelone Cavaness[27] arrived in Ambon in September 1947 to help them minister in Labuha which became a strategic center to spread the Gospel on Bacan island, North Mollucas.

In 1949, Edna Devin with the aid of some women, such as Mia Hattu and Ila Manuhutu laid the foundation of the Assemblies of God Church in Saparua when they were able to conduct a service in the village of Tiouw, Saparua, North Mollucas.[28] The work at Saparua however had to cease due to the Rebellion of the Republic of the South Mollucas (1950).

 

The Molluccan Bible Institute

Realizing that the whole Mollucas would never been reached by themselves and their American co-workers, the Devins opened Mollucan Bible Institute with a class of 11 students in Kate-kate, on March 4, 1948. John Tinsman, Ralph Mitchell Devin’s son-in-law was the first President and also one of the lecturers at this two-year school program. Other lecturers were Ralph Mitchell and Edna Devin. Bertha Thenu, one of the early converts, acted as the business manager and also translated teaching materials from English into Bahasa Indonesia.[29]

 

The Rebellion of the Republic of South Mollucas

On April 26, 1950 Dr. Soumokil declared the independent Republic of South Mollucas which included the islands of Ambon, Seram, Buru, and Banda.   The President of the Republic of Indonesia, Soekarno, considered this declaration as a serious threat to the unity of the Republic of Indonesia, so he sent military forces to Ambon and a war raged for months in Ambon and nearby islands. The city of Ambon was leveled; about one-fifth of the Indonesian army of 20,000 soldiers, half of the rebel fighting forces (500 people) and 5,000 civilians were killed or wounded.[30]

At that time the Devins were on furlough. Roswell.B. Cavaness assumed the pastoral leadership in Soos Laan in their absence. Before the war erupted, Cavaness testified that in one particular service there was a message in tongues and interpretation, saying that calamity would come upon Ambon. The next day, John Tinsman visited Ambon and told R.B. Cavaness that at the Moluccan Bible Institute, there was the exact same message in tongues as in Soos Laan church. Since the government urged all expatriates to leave Ambon, R.B. and Tinsman sent their families home. They themselves finally left Ambon for the U.S. after the Indonesian military forces recaptured Ambon from the hands of the rebels.[31] Before leaving Ambon R.B. Cavaness handed over the leadership of the church to Paul Mataheru.

The war between the Indonesian military forces and the rebel fighting forces had crippled the activities of Indische Bethel Zending. The Soos Laan church was totally devastated by fire. The Moluccan Bible School was closed during the war and mission trips to the islands in Mollucas had to be stopped for security reasons.[32]

 

Return to Ambon with M.V. Evangel

Ralph Devin saw the need for a powerful boat to evangelize many islands and to contain “a floating Bible School” in order to produce more national church leaders in the Indonesian archipelago. Thus, during his furlough in America, with approval of the Division of Foreign Mission of the American Assemblies of God, he purchased a 100-foot surplus army air-sea rescue boat, called the “Evangel”.[33]

On August 8, 1950, the “Evangel”, with 15 crew members and passengers left Seattle to begin an eventful and courageous journey across the Pacific Ocean to Indonesia. The captain was Robert Brougham, Ralph Devin’s son-in-law. Despite the heavy storms, the loss of a rudder, and mechanical failures, the “Evangel” finally arrived in the Mollucas. While docking the “Evangel” in Ambon, the crew faced a serious problem of being suspected as gun smugglers for the Dutch. They were arrested and the “Evangel” was impounded. The crew and ship finally were released and permitted to resume their long journey to Jakarta. On January 1, 1951, the “Evangel” arrived safely in Jakarta.[34]

 

In Borneo

After the end of World War II, the Shorts returned to Borneo. Together with a newly-wed couple, John and Shirley Tinsman, they tried to rebuild their previous work but found that working in Borneo was much more difficult and holding services was forbidden. Indonesians were fighting in the streets against the Dutch for their independence. These difficulties forced John and Shirley Tinsman to return to Ambon where the work was easier. The Shorts tried to stay in Borneo as long as they could. In 1947, they too had to leave when the Division of Foreign Missions appointed them as the Assemblies of God representative to the staff of the Far East Broadcasting Company (FEBC) in Manila, Philippines. The Carlbloms who came to Banjarmasin shortly after John and Shirley Tinsman left, continued the work in Borneo.[35] Due to the conditions brought on by the war, there was not much progress in building a church in Borneo.[36] The Carlbloms left Borneo in 1950 for furlough and the work in Borneo was continued by Peter Urens, a missionary from New Zealand.

 

In Jakarta

In 1946, The Busbys returned to Indonesia.[37] Together with them was Margaret Brown, a student from North West Institute, who thought she would have been released from the missionary call because of a heart defect. However, Margaret was miraculously healed which motivated her to follow the Busbys to Indonesia.[38]

Shortly after their arrival, Raymond was asked to pastor a Pentecostal church (Pinkster Gemeente) on Jalan Pecenongan 54, Jakarta. This church was pioneered by Richard van Klavern, a Bethel Temple missionary. Due to the unexpected deaths of Richard and Stein Van Klavern during Japanese occupation, the church had no pastor. The deacons decided to invite Raymond to fill the position as he was not new for the Pecenongan Congregation. Before the War, especially when he was still working under the umbrella of the Bethel Temple mission, Raymond visited and ministered there several times.[39] Since Raymond now was holding Assemblies of God credentials, and while the church was still under Pinkster Gemeente, a problem emerged. The problem was solved when the congregation at Jl. Pecenongan 54 agreed unanimously to join the Indische Bethel Zending.

Raymond Busby led the Assemblies of God church on Jl. Pecenongan 54, Jakarta, from 1946 to 1951. During his leadership, the church had two regular services every Sunday with a 120-150 people attending the 10:00 A.M. service, and 100 people in the 5:00 P.M. service.[40]

The Jakarta Bible Institute

On September 9, 1946, Raymond and Beryl Busby founded the Jakarta Bible Institute of the Assemblies of God on Jl. Pecenongan 54, Jakarta. The mission statement of this Bible institute was “to spread and enhance a true Christian lifestyle and to provide ministers of the Gospel by growing in the knowledge of the Word of God.”[41] The school offered several programs: (1) Diploma in Ministry (a three-year program); (2) Certificate in Ministry (a ten month program); (3) special programs for those who wanted to learn more about the Bible and ministry but did not want to take the exams. The first faculty members were Raymond (who also served as the president) and Beryl Busby, Margaret J. Brown and Ouw Eng Guan. The first class, which consisted of 30 students, was called “the Pioneer Class.”[42]

Since 1948 the Jakarta Bible Institute has produced ministers of the Gospel. Some of them were working directly under Raymond Busby. The Boen Thay and Ouw Eng Guan, for example assisted Raymond Busby in pastoring the church on Jl. Pecenongan 54. Others began planting churches. Iwan Brata, for example, helped Bjerva, plant a church in Bogor; and Lie Soen Lip pioneered a church on Jl. Petjah Kulit, Jakarta.

 

In Bogor

In 1949, Bjerva, a Norwegian minister, arrived in Bogor. She had been a missionary to China before the Communist took over the country in 1949.            After visiting Bogor, Bjerva desired to plant an Assemblies of God church in that beautiful town. Thus, she opened a prayer meeting on Jl. Gunung Gede Bogor. Realizing that she was not fluent in Bahasa Indonesia, Bjerva asked Iwan Brata, an alumnus of the Jakarta Bible Institute, to assist her. They had a fruitful work and many people attended their prayer meetings.[43]

Because the attendance to the prayer meeting was growing, the church needed a qualified pastor. Bjerva was only a visitor and not fluent in Bahasa Indonesia. Iwan Brata , on the other hand, still lacked the experience needed to pastor this growing church. Therefore, Leonard Lanphear, a newly appointed missionary to Indonesia, was invited to come and pastor the Bogor prayer group. Lanphear pastored the fellowship in Bogor from December 1949 to March 1951 with the assistance of Bjerva and Iwan Brata.[44]

In 1950, Lanphear, with Iwan Brata, a native of Bogor, rented a house at Jl. Semboja 50 Bogor. This house functioned as a permanent meeting place for the prayer group. Today, on the same spot is the “Semboja Assemblies of God” church, the first Assemblies of God Church in Bogor.

 

In Sumatra

After being postponed for several months due to security reasons, the Busbys were able to return to Sumatra in 1948. There, they met K.L. Tobing who carried on their ministry during the war. Recalling that moment, the Busbys wrote:

… what a happy reunion we had. The place where we could hold meeting was only about 8 feet wide and a little longer than that. We got busy and bought cheap chairs and varnished them, and at the front we built a tiny platform for the pastor to stand on. It was such a tiny place, but plenty large for the few who were there to attend.[45]

Out of the pre-war church pioneered by the Busbys, came many of the Assemblies of God churches in North Sumatra which exist today.

 

In Makassar, South Sulawesi

At the beginning of 1935, Anna Overbeek pioneered De Gemeenten van God church on Jl. Mardekaya No. 135, Makassar, South Sulawesi. Before the outbreak of the Pacific War, the church flourished because of her charismatic ministry. Anna Overbeek was bestowed with the gift of prophecy, knowledge, and healing.[46]

After the end of the Pacific War, one of the pastors who assisted Anna Overbeek, Thung Goan Soei, suggested that they form a new Pentecostal denomination. Anna did not refuse Goen Soei’s proposal, though she preferred to stay in De Gemeenten van God, so Gereja Segala Bangsa (Church for All Nations), was birthed in Makassar in 1946.

The same year, 1946, Anna Overbeek handed over the leadership of the church on Jl. Mardekaya to The Tjoan Djoe, who had just moved from Ambon. After that, this church was incorporated into the body of Bethel Indische Zending.

 

The Birth of the Assemblies of God of Indonesia (January 1951)

The first General Council of Indische Bethel Zending was held in Jakarta (Batavia) from January 1-5, 1951. Those who gathered made two important decisions. First, they agreed to change the name of their organization from Indische Bethel Zending to the Assemblies of God of Indonesia. Second, they elected Ralph Mitchell Devin as the first General Superintendent; Raymond Arthur Busby as the Assistant to the General Superintendent; and Leonard Lanphear as the General Secretary.

The new name was registered with the new Indonesian Government. On January 29, 1951, the Indonesian Government recognized the legal status of the former Indische Bethel Zending under the name, the Assemblies of God of Indonesia. The legal entity of this organization was given by the Justice Department of the Republic of Indonesia with the number J.A. 8/11/16, dated February 10, 1951.[47]

 


 

FOOTNOTES:

[1]Bethel Temple was the name given to the church in Seattle, Washington, which was pioneered by W.H. Offiler in 1914. Under Offiler’s leadership (1914-1948) the church developed a vision to expand both inside and outside the United States. Within the United States, Bethel Temple outreaches took place mostly in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska. Outside the United States, Bethel Temple’s missionaries went and planted churches in China, Japan, Indonesia, South America and many other foreign lands. The predominant characteristic of Bethel Temple outreaches was that each was self-governing and indigenous. This means that team leaders and members were trained and taught at the Seattle based Church, but once on the field it was their responsibility to maintain and rule themselves. For the detailed account, see Berube, 35-36, 39-40; Theophilus Karunia Djaja, Sejarah Gereja Pantekosta di Indonesia(n.d., n.p.), 11-12.

[2]Most of the following narrative was taken from a personal letter from Gladys Short to Morris Devin, shortly before the death of Kenneth Short in 2000, sent by Morris Devin to Gani Wiyono via e-mail, January 15, 2003.

[3]Kenneth Short received his ordination from the Southern California District of the U.S. Assemblies of God on July 26, 1935.

[4]Kenneth G. Short, “Proving God in Borneo,” Pentecostal Evangel (August 7, 1943): 2.

[5] It was basically a long canoe with a top over it and a one lung diesel motor in the middle.

[6]Kenneth Short, “Into the Interior Jungle land,” Mountain Movers (March 1982): 9.

[7]Christine Carmichael, “Where They Are Now: Edna Devin,” (Mission Forum)

[8]Ralph Devin named his company, Bank and Office Equipment Company.

[9]E-mail sent by Ralph Morris Devin to Gani Wiyono, February 5, 2003.

[10]Wayne Warner, “The Evangel Crosses the Pacific,” AG Heritage (Fall 1989): 12.

[11]Mrs. R. M. Devin, “When Pentecost Came to the Moluccas,” Pentecostal Evangel (July 7, 1945):

[12]Robert Jaffray was one the prominent missionaries of Christian and Missionary Alliance in Indonesia. During the Japanese occupation in Indonesia (1942-1945), he was put into prison in Pare-pare, South Sulawesi. He eventually died of ill treatment and starvation in 1945. See, A Dictionary of Asian Christianity, s.v. “Jaffray, Robert A.” by James B. Violet; For the complete history of Christian Missionary Alliance in Indonesia, see Rodger Lewis, Karya Kristus di Indonesia: Sejarah Gereja Kemah Injil Indonesia Sejak 1930 (Bandung: Penerbit Kalam Hidup, 1995).

[13]Interview with Moris Devin by Amos Mauleky, September 29, 1999.

[14]Anggaran Dasar Oetoesan Indjil “Bethel” Indonesia.

[15]E-mail Shirley Tinsman to Gani Wiyono, February 6, 2003.

[16]Firstly, the meeting was moved to the place called “Lorong Kodok” and then to the house of Butje Berhitu. Interview with Bertha Thenu, February 9, 2003.

[17]Interview with Bertha Thenu, February 8, 2003.

[18]Amos Mauleky, “Sejarah Perkembangan Gereja Sidang-sidang Jemaat Allah di Maluku,” (B.Th. Thesis. SatyaBhakti Advanced School of Theology, Malang, 2000), 17.

[19]Interview with Manasye Rumkeny, December 28, 1999.

[20]______,“Raymond and Berryl Busby,” Far East Missionette Memos (March 1983): 11

[21]Ibid.

[22]In their Newsletter, “Twenty Wonderful Blessed Year,” published in July 1959, The Busbys wrote, “Twenty-one years ago, on a cold November Night, God made us willing to do the thing we had been fighting so long. He made us willing to leave loved ones and friends and come to this land of our calling. It was through the death of our only son that God spoke to our hearts, and in just one short year of time, we were here in Indonesia, beginning these many years of labor for him.”

[23]Ibid., 3. K.L. Tobing was one of those who was saved and baptized under the Busby ministry before the war and he carried on their ministry during the war.

[24]Mr. And Mrs. R.M. Devin, “Return to Ambon,” Pentecostal Evangel (March 27, 1948): 10; Edna Devin, “Preaching by Prophecy” Pentecostal Evangel (November 16, 1946): 2, wrote “Our old mission station is a heap of bricks and stones. It is impossible to tell where the glory of the Lord once fell. Converrts are scattered and gone, scores are dead, some are backslidden.”

[25]Transcript Interview with Morris Devin by Amos Mauleki,

[26]Mrs. R.M. Devin, “The Molluca or Spice Islands,” The Missionary Challenge (April 1948): 19.

[27]Roswell B. Cavaness was the oldest son of a French Huguenot. His mother was English, the daughter of a graduate of a seminary in Iowa who later became a preacher. R.B.faithfully attended either a Presbyterian or Methodist church during his childhood. He however felt unsaved until attending a meeting in what later became an Assemblies of God church. By Fall 1940, R.B. enrolled in Central Bible Institute (CBI), Springfield Missouri. Shortly after becoming student at CBI, R.B. was baptized by the Holy Spirit. R. B. said, “I received the baptism of the Holy Spirit about 2:30 a.m. and my life was changed again.“ After graduation R.B. married Avelone Rasmuson, went to Idaho to pastor, and was ordained two years later. Feeling called to be missionaries, R.B. and Avelone Cavaness left their pastorate for the Dutch East Indies. They sailed on the M.S. Japara, on July 7, 1947 and arrived in Jakarta in August, 1947. From Jakarta they transferred to Ambon in September 1947 on an Army bomber. This information is taken from an email, sent by R.B. Cavaness to Gani Wiyono, January 29, 2003.

[28]Interview with Mrs. Pattileamonea, the daughter of Ila Manuhutu, by Amos Mauleky November 24, 1998.

[29]See Mauleky, 24.

[30]Nena Vreeland, Area Handbook for Indonesia (Washington D.C.: Foreign Area Studies of the American University, 1975): 40.

[31]E-mail sent by R.B. Cavaness to Gani Wiyono, February 5, 2003.

[32]Interview with Bertha Thenu, March 23, 1998.

[33]The money was provided by Speed-the Light Funds for the Indonesian Field. See “Last Lap of Voyage to Indonesia,” Pentecostal Evangel (April 15, 1951)

[34]A more complete story of Ralph Devin’s Journey to Jakarta with M.V. Evangel can be found in Wayne Warner, “The Evangel Crosses the Pacific Part 1” AG Heritage (Summer 1989): 3-6; Part 2 (Fall 1989): 12-14, 20.

[35]Besides developing Sunday School Ministry, the Carlbloms also opened a Bible Training in 1947. The first class consisted of 20 students. Two of the twenty students were H. Pahu and Jans Ngurun who have been serving the Indonesian Assemblies of God for more than 50 years.

[36]Ralph M. Devin, “What is Happening in Indonesia?” Missionary Challenge (July 1950): 9.

[37]Raymond A. Busby, “Return to Java,” Pentecostal Evangel (Sept 21, 1946): 10.

[38]Interview with Margaret Brown through e-mail, February 6, 2003.

[39]Transcript interview with Ouw Eng Guan (one of the earliest converts ) by Frederick F. Kalengkongan, May 24, 1999.

[40]Interview with The Boen Thai (Jethro Bunjamin), February 12, 2000.

[41]______.10 Tahun Assemblies of God Bible Institute Djakarta Djawa: September 1946 Sampai September 1956 (Jakarta: n.p, 1956), 5.

[42]Ibid., 5, 11.

[43]Maria E.F. Aritonang, “Sejarah Perkembangan Gereja Sidang Jemaat Allah Semboja Bogor,” (B.Th. Thesis., Satyabhakti Advanced School of Theology, Malang, 2001), 17-18.

[44]Ibid., 19-20.

[45]Raymond and Beryl Busby, “Twenty Wonderful Blessed Years,” 5.

[46]After preaching, Anna always prayed for the sick. It was reported that miracles often occurred. On one occasion, a Muslim girl who was inflicted with insanity was healed after Anna prayed for her. By 1937, two years after the founding of the church, Anna had 60-70 faithful members. See, Dorkas S.L. Rante, “Sejarah dan Perkembangan Gereja Sidang Jemaat Allah di Sulawesi Selatan,” (B.Th Thesis, Satyabhakti Advanced School of Theology, Malang, 2001),18-22.

[47]Morris Devin, Information on Assemblies of God Work in Indonesia, 1.

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